25 2020.12.06 2024.07.05 2024.07.05 article Amenoumamenoum.org On homo species. biology complete relativity, life, homo, evolution, polarized, neutralum, beta, gamma, delta, musculus, omega Complete Relativity, Solar System, Judgment day, homo.beta, homo.sapiens, homo.gamma, homo.β, homo.omega https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4959269 /authors/Amenoum.html#credits The species of homo Abstract At the point of this writing, species of homo is, in modern science, limited to past and current inhabitants of planet Earth. However, my earlier work shows that planets are also living beings and may be categorized into species. Relatively the same species of homo would, by this hypothesis, inhabit the same class of planets at various times. Here, likely characteristics and evolutionary pathways of present and future homo species are presented and discussed. Intro Here I describe species of homo inhabiting the Solar System. Generally, such species should be indigenous to any 10C/10Be planetary system in an environment of [properly scaled] extremely low density and temperature. Homo.beta = homo.β = modern human = img homo.sapiens Number of zygote chromosomes: 2 x 23. The extant, soon to be extinct on the surface of Earth, dominantly extroverted species of homo genus, self-proclaimed homo.sapiens. However, here it is not defined as real sapiens, rather as a possible precursor to real homo.sapiens. Can be further divided into 3 subspecies, depending on intelligence polarization:
Evolutionary tree of homo
Fig. 1: Evolutionary tree of homo
Homo.beta may evolve directly into homo.sapiens (effective fusion of two complementary homo.beta genomes) or via homo.gamma fission and subsequent fusion, as shown on Fig. 1. Other animal.cancerous species are animals entangled with homo.beta (mostly domesticated animals). Updated chapter Homo.beta.
This classification of humans into 3 species is rooted in the relative equivalence of particles and living beings. In my works, the soul of animals of human scale is hypothesized to be a quantum of space which can be interpreted as a particle similar to other particles in the realm of particle physics. This particle has [at least] two polarized and one neutral (gravitational) component, one of which is dominant and that dominance will be reflected in the body and its behavioural characteristics (epigenetics). Classification of humans into 3 species already exists in humanity. In example, there are 3 recognized somatotypes, which I have previously correlated with evolution of homo on Venus, Earth and Mars. But perhaps most significantly, humans can be divided into 3 species (ecosystems) by the microbiota they contain. Previously underestimated, it is now recognized that microorganisms, especially those in the gut, form a vital part of a human organism. The gut ecosystem, with its own neurons, is now even recognized as another brain, with significant influence on the function of a primary brain. This should further lead to organs being recognized as introverted organisms in symbiosis, as I have hypothesized elsewhere.
Homo.beta.polarized = homo.beta.cancerous = homo.β.c = omega.carcinoma.ectoderm = modern savage A subspecies of homo.beta. Added chapter Late ancestry. Late ancestry The homo.beta may evolve from Neanderthals and/or Cro-Magnons. On female homo.omega (planets), such as Venus, Neanderthal (or Neanderthal equivalent) genes may dominate, while on male species, such as Mars and Earth, Cro-Magnons dominate the gene pool. For that reason, evolution of life on Earth should be more similar to evolution of life on Mars, although it should also be, to large extent, equal to evolution on Venus (especially up to the first appearance of one of these species).
While male/female differences in animals of human scale may be significant, in planets this difference reduces to a difference in spin [magnetic] momentum and subtle differences in size, rate of evolution and dominance between [properly scaled] proteins. Note that the choice is arbitrary, I have found it appropriate for Venus to be declared female - which makes Earth and Mars male, but different interpretations are possible. One reason for my choice is based on the following: However, in biggest mammals on Earth (blue whales) females are slightly bigger than males, thus, inversion of size with the growth in scale is possible. Interestingly, the ratio of average female mass to average male mass in Croatia is equal to the mass ratio between Venus and Earth (0.82). Is this entanglement a coincidence?
Properties Polarized species generally live in strongly hierarchical communities practising master/slave relationships and are bound by strict rules on behaviour and life. Distinct characteristic of homo.β.c is the imbalance of material and spiritual intelligence. In case of corpus, material intelligence is significantly more developed than spiritual. Opposite is the case in spiritus individuals of β.c. Both live in entangled systems where one produces and promotes horizontal inequality and other supports it, living by the rules of such systems. With inequality, correlated with strong hierarchy, some forms of life are treated as beings of lesser value, and thus often used as a resource. While polarized species may not generally be or become cancerous, for homo.beta.polarized everything is a potential resource for exploitation rather than a partner in symbiosis. The claimed resource may be its god (planet), other animals living on it or any other part of the local universe. While being unlimited in growth and unmatched in power by any other species, polarized homo.beta is generally malignant. This anthropocentric behaviour (vertical inequality, centralism) is reflected in the self-centric behaviour of individuals, who treat even other humans as resources (horizontal inequality, centralism). The self-centric behaviour and reluctance to deal with the source of issues, prioritizing short-term profit, makes this species unsustainable and inevitably short-lived. The average homo.β.c strives for relationships which include or promote ownership and consumerism, or possessiveness and sacrifice. Relationships are chained and may include other species, so the role of a master and a slave, or even corpus and spiritus nature, is relative. That homo.beta is a precursor to homo.sapiens becomes obvious when it names itself Homo Sapiens. While it may be often projecting the image of a sapien creature, effectively, it is not being one. Homo.beta.polarized is conservative and slaves to beliefs and established dogmas of absolutist nature, all while constantly bathed in complete relativity. Nothing survives homo.beta on the surface of homo.omega individuals. Thus, the fact that there is no complex life on the surface on Mars may be interpreted as evidence that such humans lived there. Polarized intelligence and social behaviour Despite having the largest memory and processing capacity of all species homo.β coexists with, due to polarization, β.c uses a limited amount of available mental capacity.
Being of complex nature, β.c has a very distorted view of reality, speaking often of relatives and relative nature, but awarding absolutism and striving to it, regardless of the case. Despite the potential, due to idle capacity, average β.c is a very simple creature, behaving as a single-celled (unaware of its cells) organism with very predictive and very limited daily routines, either external or mental. Being extremely afraid of everything (but most of independent thought), it is very prone to taming and domestication (although most individuals would not recognize it as such), it will not resist slavery and will gladly obey commands upon the promise of existential security. Beta.cancerous lives in chained master-slave relationships so it often owns a pet as a reflection of a larger system it is part of, a system in which it might effectively be a pet. Beta.c often calls this relationship (and any other master-slave relationship) friendship, even though, in most cases, the animal has been taken from its mother at early age and had no choice but to see beta.c individual as his parent. However, at later age, due to soul oscillation, a wild instinct can be inflated in the animal when it might rebel against slavery, at that point it is usually killed or the friendship is terminated in some other way. Thus, this pet ownership may be viewed as a mental reaction of β.c to extraneous ownership of its own self by institutions, although this is also a typical case of synchronicity, where one system reflects the other. In hard times, beta.c will speak of curse (rather than karma), blame others (eg. nature, for the catastrophe it caused) and wage wars, if not against others then against itself - in self-pity. The often hopeless β.c doesn't even remotely know what it is, where it is and why it is, but for some reason it is very proud of what it is, where it is and what it does. Qualities Beta.polarized can have a lot of qualities (eg. in engineering, data aggregation, food preparation, ...), however, these qualities generally manifest themselves intra-species at the expense of other species, which are generally considered unlimited resources, making utilization of these qualities unsustainable. Even though this creature seems malevolent relative to the planet and everything on it, it has its purpose in evolution of life. It has an important role and it would be wrong to consider it absolutely bad. Added chapter Final years. Final years Final years of homo.beta are strongly influenced by the events of strong evolution, when its behaviour, physiology and way of life are changing (evolving) rapidly. Being a precursor to homo.sapiens, these characteristics will generally be converging to those of homo.sapiens, although temporary excursions into other evolutionary pathways are likely. Homo.sapiens lives underground, in planet's mantle, where there may be no omnipresent ambient visible light, only more or less localized bioluminescence. However, atmospheric variability, seasons and day/night equivalent cycles are, as part of planet's metabolism, present even there, where the amount of open spaces, variability and wilderness probably decrease with mantle depth. Therefore, these precursors are likely to be present in homo.beta.polarized during final years: Since homo.beta.polarized does not change by its own will, rather by external force and enforcement (threat of force), one can expect strong changes in its climate and policies during final years. The anthropogenic climate changes here are synchronized with non-anthropogenic climate changes in positive feedback loops, as one driver or manifestation (depending on perspective) of accelerated evolution. Expiration
While the dawn of Homo sapiens was very inviting to life, the dusk of homo.β.c ended in solitude for this sad creature. One may wonder what is the purpose of this self-destructive entity in the endless sea of universes. Well, the purpose of this species has been chosen by the species itself - to bring death to life. While this is honourable by itself, in case of c this is an act of selfishness, a result of unawareness (selective awareness = selective ignorance). The execution is also very poor, with no clear goal and no consensus on the poison or weapon to use. Overall, this was a very painful dying for the host, the jesus of earth. Everything has a purpose, but all purposes expire. There is only so much time a purpose has, to become aware it is not its own purpose. In this, homo.β.c regularly fails fantastically.
Homo.β.c may differentiate directly into homo.sapiens or indirectly through gamma and neutralum species. The homo.β.c of Earth has expired, naturally, somewhere around 2066 AD. He misses himself. Homo.beta.neutralum = homo.beta.amenoum Homo.beta.neutralum, or homo.beta.amenoum may generally be the result of fission of homo.gamma.
In this context, "amenoum" (Latin pronunciation) is short for "men and women of unpolarized mind".
Neutralum values simplicity, truth and a long-term well-being over short-term polarized interests. Thus, many terms and practices commonly associated with life of cancerous, in neutralum society would simply be relatively undefined. These include: While neutralum species may also live in communities, these are not characterized by strong hierarchy and master/slave relationships. In cancerous societies, life without these burdens is considered an utopia, such freedom (anarchy) is undesirable and unjustly absolutely equalized with chaos. In reality, such life is not only possible, but it is a natural step in progressive evolution of intelligence - it is much more energy efficient, as many institutions and practices become obsolete. In precursor species, this may be due to recognition of karma and reincarnation as universal natural principles of life operation, but for a real neutralum such life is naturally embedded (a part of programming), the same as it is in nature of mammals to have a hand or an eye. In neutralum society security is achieved through symmetric symbiosis (horizontally - between species of similar scale, and vertically - between species of different scale), while freedom is implicit.
At time of this writing, homo.beta.neutralum is strongly discriminated within homo.beta societies - it is not recognized as different species and is forced to live by the rules, and obey the laws, of polarized people.
Chapter Physical differences updated. Physical differences Neutralum individuals are not only mentally different from polarized homo individuals, but physically too. Souls and bodies co-evolve and some mental differences will be imprinted or reflected in the body. Generally, distinct characteristics of neutralums may be: Other differences may include genetically coded characteristics such as blood type and metabolism, as discussed elsewhere, although some of these may be limited to neutralums with partially non-local origins.
One of these is hypothesized to be lower oxygen requirement and other characteristics of a metabolism which should be correlated with B12 vitamin requirements. Neutralums are likely to be evolving to plant-eating species, therefore, homo.beta.neutralum is likely to have lower requirements for B12 intake (less than 2.0 μg/day) than average human population on Earth. This, however, does not necessarily imply B12 is less used - most likely, some [precursor] mechanism similar to those in herbivores is enabling utilization of B12 produced by microbes in situ which would otherwise be wasted. Neutralums are more likely to live at high-altitude regions than polarized humans. Studies show that there is low prevalence of B12 deficiency in children residing at high-altitude regions compared to plain areas. Since neutralums are more likely to live at higher altitudes, this could be the evidence for in situ B12 production. However, these studies assume the reason for low deficiency is increased B12 intake through meat and other products containing B12. Thus, further research would be necessary to confirm the hypothesis.
However, on the lowest (soul) level, difference should be in the ratio of polarized electro-magnetic to neutral gravitational force, which, in neutralums should correspond to [a precursor of] a 6th sense (enhanced mental capabilities) likely reflected in layer I of the brain.
It is possible that neural proteins of layer I do not generally reside in cells.
Added chapter \ch (\ch_title). Small updates elsewhere. Precursor origin Generally, neutralum is the result of fission of gamma, however, neutralum (or precursor neutralum) might appear on the surface of a planet even before gamma, which can be interpreted as a result of relativity in causality. Such neutralums are not pure neutralums but most likely hybrids, a result of pairing of polarized and non-polarized genetics. Due to hybridization, these precursors will be periodically expressing some polarized behaviour, but if these are on the course of progressive evolution, polarized behaviour is likely to be limited to early life and, at some point, the precursor neutralum will experience a moment of transformation to proper neutralum. Effectively, after transformation, the individual becomes different species, and to differentiate between two species, one may refer to precursors of neutralum as amenoum, or - differentiate the meaning of amenoum. In male example, before transformation it would be translated as "men of um" (where "um" is the Croatian/Serbian word for "mind"), after transformation it would be translated as "men of unpolarized mind". In case of regressive evolution (recession of neutrality), early life of precursor neutralum may lack polarized behaviour but, after transformation, such behaviour will prevail.
Generally, living in a polarized world, exposed to polarized people and animals (generally domestic) neutralum will constantly be challenged to express polarization. Strong and healthy neutralum will generally ignore these polarization requests (accepting any eventual consequences as karma - whether these are positive or negative), however, this may be extremely hard at times, especially if neutralum has close family. Neutralum might thus polarize at times to protect the bodies or souls of its family (including its own) although neutralums never enjoy fighting, neither mental nor physical confrontation. Rather than involving in constant fights, once neutralum is fed up with irritation, its typical response would be to find stronger isolation or incapacitate the menace long-term. Humans are not sacred to neutralum - killing a human is not different from killing any other animal of comparable mass (mass of the same magnitude). And, generally, neutralum will find more value in any wild flora and fauna than in polarized human individuals. Generally, neutralums exposed to synchronicity are general precursors and, at certain point, during accelerated evolution, a wish of such neutralum for menace to go away will come true so it is not necessary to confront it (particular karma does not last infinitely) and risk additional karma of the type.
Amenoums are likely to stand out in generally polarized society and will have strong influence on local evolution. They might become famous for their work, however, polarized population will generally not understand that work and any appreciation is likely to be of religious or fake character (eg. based on pride of nationality). Some notable people who, most likely, were/are amenoums: Even though most neutralums (amenoums) on Earth may not have local origin (in terms of parts of body DNA at least, the soul should be local), they should also evolve independently on Earth. In fact, one of indigenous amenoums was likely A. Einstein. The number of such neutralums should be increasing as the Earth is losing polarization. With no decrease in polarization, contrary to popular belief (of gamblers), probability of appearance of highly intelligent individuals does not increase with increasing population. The two species are similar but there are subtle differences. In example, based on my hypotheses and research, locally evolving neutralums are likely to have brown eyes, mesomorph somatotype and a B blood type, while those with Mars' based origins are likely to have grey eyes, ectomorph somatotype and an Rh- blood type. Mars' based origins are not limited to neutralums however, in example, low-melanin eyes (eg. blue) may generally indicate a Mars origin. The effect of ignorance of subspecies Physiological differences between subspecies are obviously significant. However, mainstream science and mainstream policies of homo.beta may not generally discriminate between different subspecies of humans. This will lead to contradiction between studies (if, for example, in one group one subspecies dominates, in other group different subspecies dominates) and inappropriate generalization. Especially discriminated will be the subspecies representing minority of the population, which, in a dominantly polarized world, are the neutralum species. This is not limited to intra-species interactions. Any animal of neutralum subspecies may be discriminated (eg. an animal refusing domestication/slavery). Polarized souls oscillate between polarized animals, thus, it is more likely for polarized human souls to oscillate between polarized humans and domesticated animals. In neutralum subspecies, the oscillation is more likely to involve wild animals, particularly those species where neutralum subspecies dominates. Another variable, commonly not taken into account properly, is time. With transformation of consciousness, one individual can effectively change subspecies (although phase shift exists between the soul and the body, so it may take some time for the body to adapt). Homo.gamma = homo.γ = homo.chimera Homo.gamma is a chimera (result of fusion in space, or superposition in time) of homo.beta.polarized genome and a genome of species beta is horizontally entangled with (eg. canine, avian, ..). A fusion of homo.beta.polarized of one type (eg. spiritus) with animal.cancerous of other type (eg. corpus) may produce a homo.gamma.neutralum which will subsequently divide into animal.homo.beta.neutralum and animal.other.beta.neutralum. Homo.sapiens = homo.delta = homo.δ A species of homo, whose extroverted and introverted intelligence is, generally, in balance. Estimated number of neocortex neurons: 16 * 109 - 32 * 109. Number of zygote chromosomes: 2 x 22, or 23 + 22. Estimated lifespan: ≤1512000 years. Individuals of this species probably form specific neural proteins of a planet (homo.omega). Origin and features Homo.sapiens evolves from homo.beta. It may evolve through effective fusion of two complementary beta.neutralums or through fusion of a beta.cancerous and beta.neutralum, in which case it conserves some polarization. Progressive evolution favours energy-efficient means of information transfer. Thus, usage of artificial mechanisms for specific communication is generally a precursor to naturally evolved organics for such exchange of information. First communication skills of homo.beta ancestors involved usage of tools to produce sound (like their children generally do). This was a precursor to verbal communication. Later, increasing usage of electric and electro-magnetic means of communication (transfer of information) and decreasing usage of verbal skills was a precursor to natural electro-magnetic communication in homo.sapiens. Most energy-efficient way to accomplish that is to upgrade the eyes for two-way transfer of electro-magnetic information (since it already supports one-way). Thus, homo.sapiens has enlarged eyes compared to homo.beta, with decreased reflectivity and increased absorption capabilities of frequencies homo.beta uses for communication in electro-magnetic spectrum.
To understand this, it is useful to ask why and how did eyesight evolve. For each evolving life form somewhere exists a more or less evolved form of that life-form. Life on Earth's surface evolves equally to embryonic life development of species where natural selection is a product of synchronicity, a mutation to be selected is predetermined to occur due to being genetically encoded at some scale. Since body and soul co-evolve, during weak evolution, genetic code of the soul will generally reflect the genetic code of the body. Note that each soul on Earth is a fusion of two souls, one of which is dominant. Usually, at death, the soul will reincarnate locally in another body if there are compatible eggs. However, with the pulse of strong evolution, some souls might regress, defusing into two souls (instead of fusing with another soul). This may leave two souls without compatible bodies to incarnate in locally. Such souls will radiate away until they are effectively attracted to compatible eggs somewhere else. If the DNA of new body is less evolved than a previous body DNA (compatibility of body and soul is lower), the progression of evolution toward synchronization of genetic codes between the body and the soul will require mutations, not random, but ones leading to synchronization. Note that a compatible egg spans multiple horizontal species (same order of scale). This is evident in beta.cancerous and domesticated canine species - dogs are evolving human characteristics while beta.cancerous is evolving canine due to horizontal transfer of souls between incarnations. At first, mental characteristics evolve, but these are a precursor to physical characteristics - thus, strongly entangled canine and homo souls fuse into a single homo.gamma soul with a pulse of strong evolution (just like any other organisms in symbiosis). Mental characteristics and behaviour reflect future physical characteristics. Obviously, if one is communicating using radio waves there's a good probability that its body will be sensitive to these frequencies with the next upgrade. This bathing in radio waves is no different from bathing in water - if one spends time in water of specific salinity one will be evolving senses optimized for survival in such water and ones to make sense of that specific salinity. All this is invariant to scale, both of space and time. Consider a proton and electron bathing in a sea of photons. With a decrease in energy, a proton starts using electron to detect radiation. With the increase in gravitational pressure (compression of time) it fuses with it to become a neutron (otherwise it would never fuse with it, with the decrease in photon density it would actually lose the need for it - a strong evolution event is thus necessary for the creation of new species). Once one realizes that an atom and a planetary system are equal in certain conditions (due to scale invariance of physical laws), even the β and inverse β decays become effects of changes in pressure. Due to favoured increase of efficiency, in progressive evolution (fusion) of species the product will always have less mass than the sum of individual constituent particles.
Homo evolves on multiple planets of a 10C/10Be system, but not on all of them at the same time. Therefore, there is a possibility for homo.beta and homo.sapiens to interact, however, that implies that homo.sapiens has means to travel from a [brain] mantle to the surface of a planet. Such capability is likely effectively reserved for inhabitants of layer I (top layer) of the homo.omega brain. Credible evidence exists already for interaction between Earth.homo.beta and Mars.homo.sapiens. However, homo.sapiens will generally avoid surface during cultivation of homo.beta as electro-magnetic radiation produced by homo.beta is overwhelming for its brain, with a possibility of creating serious health issues if some electro-magnetic shielding is not used. More energy-efficient food intake coupled with reduced vocal capabilities makes the mouth of such creature less pronounced than that of homo.beta. Nose, ears and sexual organs have also receded as homo.beta at its peak is decreasingly using and needing these (generally, physical stimulation is being replaced with mental). Since the brain of this creature is, effectively, a result of fusion of two oppositely polarized homo.beta brains (similarly to homo.beta brain being the effective fusion of ape brains) its head is also bigger than that of homo.beta. Doubling of neuron cells has the same effect as doubling of transistors in a computer chip, so that alone does not make one more intelligent, however, with the fusion of oppositely polarized individuals, intelligence is increased proportionally to reduction in polarization. The increase of internal processing power leads to (or, from a larger perspective, it is synchronized with) a decrease of dependence on external interactions for the experience of reality. The complexity of intelligence expressed externally is thus exchanged for the complexity of internal expression at homo.sapiens. On average though, with neutralum subspecies dominantly expressed, homo.sapiens is far more intelligent than average homo.beta. Increase in brain size comes at the expense of body size (equivalent to difference in human and gorilla metabolism) so the body of this creature does not have a lot of fat tissue. The loss of outer fat layers and skin thickness is due to delegation of temperature regulation and insulation to a symbiotic organism. This organism has its precursor in homo.beta - in the form of houses, clothes and vehicles. Generally, due to delegation of regulation/insulation, the hair recedes into follicles and homo.sapiens generally does not have much visible hair. With the reduction of external complexity, the number of digits on hands and legs is reduced, to 4 or perhaps even 3 (through fusion of adjacent digits). Among homo.sapiens individuals, difference in physical characteristics is negligible (note the precursor in rise of equality of homo.beta individuals) but larger in mental abilities. These creatures are the brains of the brain cells of homo.omega species. Thus, their living environment is bathed in a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) - salty (oceanic) water with a pH of 7.33, and interstitial fluid (water), both containing other proteins (forms of life). Drinking water of homo.sapiens is likely less alkaline than that of homo.beta and so is their blood. The stomach fluid however, is less acidic. Bioluminescence is a common feature of the flora and fauna in the living environment of homo.sapiens, with which it lives in symbiosis. Homo.sapiens generally sleeps during heat waves (homo.beta day equivalents) and is active during cold waves (night equivalents).
Fig. 2: The likely appearance of homo.sapiens' head and body
Fig. 2 shows a homo.sapiens individual with his face expressing headache induced by information transferred through homo.beta social networks. Although shown here with 3 digits, homo.sapiens may generally have 4 digits on its extremities. Is it a coincidence that this creature resembles creatures from stories correlated with UFO's ? Definitely not. Either some people sometimes hallucinate future or at least some alien abductions are real, or both. Reproduction Sexual intercourse may not be physical in homo.sapiens, at least not strongly. Parts of code for DNA assembly may be transferred as electro-magnetic information with genetic material, to be used in the production of offspring, synthesized in situ. Possibly, production of offspring can be blocked by thoughts alone, although the success rate may vary among individuals, depending on the amount of spiritual intelligence. The other possibility is that the production is optional and requires a conscious decision. In any case, with the loss of need for physical contact and attraction, physical difference between male and female individuals is minimal. With the reduction in complexity, oviduct and intestinal tube are fused into a single external opening (cloaca). Decreasing entanglement of homo.beta parents with children (even though they may live together, they live in different realities), is a precursor to lack of entanglement during embryonic development - homo.sapiens is laying eggs.
Note that egg laying of sapiens must have a stronger physical precursor in homo.beta. For that reason, at its peak, there are no pregnancies in homo.beta - embryos are developing outside of the human body. As a precursor to the appliance of technology to humans, rodent embryos are grown outside of the womb. Chapter Reproduction updated. Small revisions elsewhere.
UPDATE 2022.02.09: This prediction is now confirmed - artificial wombs suitable for human embryos are almost here.
Reasons for this are various: In cases where political structures survive, there is a high probability for pregnancies to become illegal.
Added chapter Homo.musculus. Homo.musculus = Balaenoptera musculus = blue whale = homo.ε Balaenoptera musculus is a possible descendant species of homo, whose introverted intelligence is significantly greater than extroverted intelligence. Number of zygote chromosomes: 2 x 22. Estimated lifespan: ≈85 years. Individuals of the species form proteins of a planet (homo.omega) residing in CSF (cerebrospinal fluid) - a salty ocean. Its extroverted role in the ecosystem is simply carbon capture and storage, however, its introverted nature and activity is much more complex and its exact role in planet's neural system is unclear but it is likely similar to that of standard glia cells or its proteins. While toothed whales might evolve from Phiomicetus anubis, descendant of homo.gamma.anubis, baleen whales such as musculus may be evolving from another homo.gamma subspecies or, perhaps more likely, homo.sapiens. Note that, by the naming conventions of modern science, musculus should not belong to homo genus. Evolution includes divergence and convergence of species, and whales and humans seem to be distantly related. In this context, the naming convention is such that "homo" indicates that whales evolved from Homo sapiens but that evolution may have included multiple divergence and/or convergence events. Origin On its path of evolution toward homo.omega, homo.sapiens lives in symbiosis with spherical forms of life. These forms of life are amphibian, as precursors indicate and, as evidence suggests, although likely increasingly aquatic.
Note that currently, among society, there is no consensus on what footage like the one cited above represents. Homo.beta, while not so conservative in estimates of its own intelligence, is very conservative and very cautious not to interpret such phenomena as evidence for higher non-human intelligence, even though it is becoming harder and harder to find a convincing excuse. I have no doubt that these observables represent intelligent life forms and I have no doubt that homo.beta will soon have to admit it.
This symbiosis, with progressive evolution, leads to chimeras with limb complexity further reduced and intelligence further shifting to introverted domain. This reduction in external complexity coupled with expected increase in mass and shift in symbiosis from land toward aquatic lifeforms, paints a picture of an [aquatic] life-form similar to a whale. Homo.musculus is thus likely the result of fusion of homo.sapiens descendant and an aquatic life form, and Mysticeti (baleen whales) and Odontoceti (toothed whales) may originate in planet's mantle. A couple of additional facts go in favour of this hypothesis: I have previously hypothesized that Antarctica gets ice free during mass extinctions to enable the transfer of life (neuron proteins) from surface to mantle. The ice free Antarctica during Eocene-Oligocene extinction is thus not surprising. It should not be surprising then that some life is transferred from mantle to surface. Such exchange of life between mantle and surface explains explosive radiation of life after extinctions. Likely, Mysticeti were transferred during events of Eocene-Oligocene extinction, from mantle to surface. Their ancestor thus never lived on surface and may have been a short lived form of homo descendant. The fact that oldest discovered fossil of a blue whale (B. musculus) is 1.25 - 1.5 million years old may indicate that largest whales, such as B. musculus did not evolve from surface Mysticeti, rather were transferred during smaller extinction events.
Note that the period of a 3rd order cycle of Earth (Solar System) is 1.512 million years, with a major (1st order) extinction scheduled for this century, last 3rd order extinction should have happened ≈1.3 - 1.5 million years ago (3rd order cycle period is entangled with 10Be half-life, which is 1.512 My average, was 1.3 My in 2019. according to my calculations in TSS, was 1.39 My in 2010.). However, if indeed blue whales (or their embryos) were transferred to surface 1.5 million years ago, this implies that either: Note that, even if Antarctica doesn't get completely ice free often, most of the ice is not older than 1.5 million years - it melts due to accumulated pressure above and geothermal energy below. Thus, there can be no direct evidence for permanent complete ice cover for longer periods of time and a real possibility exists for periodic partial concentrated melting (with periodic increase in geothermal energy).
Updated chapter Plausibility. Added chapter Alternative evolution. Added chapter Plausibility. Plausibility Obviously, if musculus evolves from homo.sapiens, one of the following must be true: Both hypotheses are plausible. Evolution of humans is scripted so if they did evolve multiple times in Earth's history they didn't last long - once homo.beta civilization becomes industrial it soon collapses, probably in less than 300 years (as the current state on Earth suggests). Thus, the species will be generally absent from fossil records. Some have already wondered if similar ecosystem changes millions of years in the past had the same cause (based on Silurian hypothesis). The hypothesis is currently considered unlikely though, as comparable climate or ecosystem disruptions generally span millions of years - not hundreds. However, if my hypothesis on effective time compression (disruption of decay rates of elements during strong evolution pulses) is true, even the current disruption would span millions of years in a fossil record with time compression unaccounted for. According to my calculations, cultivation of humans on surface is correlated with mass extinctions so if humans did evolve multiple times on Earth's surface they might have evolved at most 5 times before. And if they did so on Earth, they did on Venus and Mars too.
Note that, if humans did evolve on Earth more than once, it seems possible that whales, instead of originating in mantle, evolve on surface, not as fusion of homo.sapiens and an aquatic lifeform, rather as fusion of an aquatic lifeform and homo.beta [descendant] that remains on surface. However, due to surface extinctions, the time available for such fusion is short (has to be driven by lateral gene transfer/exchange).
In any case, several facts go in favour of the hypothesis that whales are descendants of homo, or at least have more evolved brains and introverted intelligence:
The ability to turn off parts of the brain during daily activity is not only the evidence that whales are less awake (conscious) in extroverted reality and more conscious in introverted reality than we are, it is also a sign of increased efficiency - which is a hallmark of progressive evolution. This is evident when brains are compared to computers or their CPU's (Central Processing Units of computers). First CPU's have operated on a fixed frequency and all parts were powered on at the same time, while modern CPU's are much more energy efficient - parts can be turned off (put to sleep) and on as needed and the frequency is dynamic. Human operation in virtual reality (increasing mental stimulation, decreasing physical stimulation) is an obvious precursor to increase in conscious operation in introverted reality and a decrease of conscious extroverted operation. One might argue that humans are simply losing consciousness, regressing to an ecosystem of micro-conscious individuals (or decaying as a distinct life-form), but this is a consequence of an absolutist view - where diversity of physical manipulation and expression is highly correlated with intelligence and consciousness. Humans are not decaying, their operation is simply concentrating to the brain area and they are exchanging extroverted consciousness and intelligence for introverted consciousness and intelligence. The trouble with extroverted physical expression in introverted human individuals is an obvious precursor to loss of the ability of, or diversity in, extroverted expression. Note however, that it has no effect on total intelligence (or total consciousness!). The question is - is total intelligence increasing with progressive evolution or simply shifting (oscillating) from extroverted to introverted domain? If brain size (or number of brain cells) is correlated with total intelligence, average intelligence of whales should be higher than average intelligence of humans. This correlation may be valid to some degree, but due to discrete vertical energy levels, at some point discrete quanta of consciousness themselves become bigger and the continuous increase is disrupted (ratio of brain size to cell number changes). In any case, whales should be, on average, at least as intelligent as humans. Another argument going in favour of this hypothesis can be found in comparison of whales with dinosaurs. Why do whales need big brains when their extroverted behaviour (apart from communication) is very simple - all they need to do to feed, for example, is open their mouth. Compare this to a T. rex who had to chase and outsmart its prey to get a lunch. And yet, T. rex had a very small brain compared to its size, and much smaller than that of a baleen whale. The size is not all that matters, however, the brain of a baleen whale is definitely more advanced and yet its physical capabilities are subdued compared to dinosaurs. All this hints at very high, albeit introverted, intelligence. In other words, baleen whales experience the outside world at very low resolution (their eyesight, for example, is about 10 times worse than ours), but they dream in very high resolution (which is correlated with the number of certain neurons).
One might argue that human brains are currently shrinking. Generally they are currently shrinking, likely to a superposition of human and canine (and possibly avian and ungulate in some cases) brains (homo.gamma brains), but this should be temporary for those who will continue progressive evolution afterwards (such should be majority in case of healthy neural development of Earth). Alternative evolution It is possible that musculus does not evolve from homo, but the two species rather diverged from a common ancestor long time ago, as argued by conventional theories. However, even in that case, the brain of musculus is apparently ahead of the brain of homo in progressive evolution, and this may not be so easy to explain with no homo-like ancestry. Future evolution Size of mammals is primarily limited by the planetary system they reside in. Further limitations are imposed by the conditions of the body (eg. planet) they live in/on. On Earth, mammals probably cannot get more massive than a blue whale. Since increase in size in mammals is correlated with progressive evolution a blue whale can be considered a pinnacle of evolution on Earth. Further evolution (toward homo.omega) would require fusion of planets (planetary systems) which would fuse the gravitons (souls) and thus introduce new goals for evolution of life. Homo.omega = homo.Ω A class of relatively introverted warm-blooded life-forms. Estimated number of neocortex neurons in Earth-like species: 64 * 109. Intro To accept the possibility that a planet is alive one must accept complete relativity - eg. one cannot expect that skin or blood will have the same composition on all scales and that its evolution, development and growth will not be dilated in time (the speed of time is generally inversely proportional to scale of energy). To us the Earth may have the equivalent of blood, but relative to Earth's scale - it is blood and it is us who have the equivalent of blood. This is generally true for anything with scale invariant function but scale variant appearance. In addition to scale-dependent appearance and time dilation, in case of planets, one must also accept the fact that manifestation of intelligence is not limited to external environment but can be expressed internally (introverted reality). This should not be hard to accept, considering the fact that introversion is present in humans too, it is just not as extreme as in a planet and not developed enough to enable consistent dreams or coherent introverted reality.
Fig. 3: homo.omega right and left hemispheres, at the time of the stage 6 of neurogenesis
Self-similarity of universes = self-similarity of life Evolution must have a relative goal in order to proceed. This is obvious in weak evolution - how one will look like and function as an adult is well known even before birth. Even though DNA might acquire some changes which will be passed on to next generation, due to scale invariance, even these changes are programmed on some higher level. Evolution is enabled by relativity of past and future - both exist at different scales, so from one reference frame evolution has a goal, from the other goal is the result of specific evolution. Long term goal of evolution is obvious from orbitals - with enough energy everything evolves into species it is revolving about. It is equally correct to say that orbiting of cubs around adults is the inherited behaviour from positrons orbiting the atomic nuclei and that orbiting of planets around stars is inherited from cubs. With enough energy:
Note that cubs may be orbiting adults but to some extent adults are also orbiting cubs - which may slow down the ageing of parents, but also leave them with less time for themselves. This is equal to decreased rate of ageing of a bound planet and a star due to increase in gravity. A free particle generally ages faster but has more time for itself. Souls of all inner planets (those between the star and main asteroid belt) are generally born of the star they are orbiting and it is unlikely they will orbit another star as long as the star is alive. These souls have been attached to the primary (core) soul of the star right before the conception when they collapsed into individual wells orbiting the star and started acquiring mass. The process is equal to human conception and embryonic development - the soul attaches to the [egg of a] female just before it is fertilized when it collapses into an individual forming life. Note that the only reason orbitals and spins of human cubs and adults do not seem like revolutions, rather like Brownian attachments or entanglements, is the distribution of gravitational potential. In isolated environments, such as utero, the spin and orbital momentums do become more obvious, rather than fragmented. These momentums also become more obvious when relativity is taken into account - if a mother turns around 360° with a child fixed in front of her, from the reference frame of the mother it is the child who completed the orbit around her. With age, as cubs mature, healthy orbits change distance - exactly as what is happening with orbits of terrestrial planets around the Sun.
A terrestrial planet or a relative positron [equivalent] is a life form with high, extremely introverted, intelligence. In the Solar System, three planets belong to the same class of such life: Venus, Earth and Mars. This is the homo.omega class. Form and characteristics If not inflated from another scale, homo.omega may evolve from homo.beta with iteration 23 of the weak evolution cycle (this, of course, would require fusion of planetary systems once the mass of homo.musculus is reached, as noted before). As the evolution of homo.sapiens continues, complexity of intelligence expression is further shifting to introversion and external complexity continues decreasing proportionally. At the peak of this introversion is homo.omega, a life-form without external limbs, a creature in the optimal shape for long-term survival - a sphere. Without limbs, it might seem fragile, however, its vital organ(s) are heavily protected with multiple layers of inert material (which have been growing with every iteration). These do not only form the barrier to potential invaders, but present the image of a life-less entity, especially after the creature is fully developed (when it's effectively playing dead). This seems like a great evolutionary advantage. Leading external creatures to discard any possibility of complex structure or life in homo.omega some would even consider it as a point particle. However, for the same reasons, it is vulnerable to relative homo.beta.cancerous equivalents who may use it as a resource. Although, homo.beta.cancerous itself may not present a big threat, if isolated it generally exterminates itself or it may be eliminated by the response of homo.omega biosphere. Entering adulthood, individuals of this species gain an imaginary surface layer which acts as an additional protective envelope which is either too hot and volcanic (in case of females) or too cold and barren (males) for relatively complex invaders and parasites. Although, with increase in introversion, species generally lose hair, this hair is not absolutely lost, rather recedes into follicles. Here, precursor to this hair are plants. With no extroverted physical activity, introverted organisms are relatively more energy efficient, although energy usage for mental activities is obviously increased. Evolution toward introversion will be decreasing scales of absorbed energy. Instead of a single opening for absorption of food (mouth), an extremely introverted organism absorbs energy with its whole body - whether in the form of radiation or heat induced by tidal forces. Precursor to this is evident in whales who eat plankton (as opposed to smaller mammals eating bigger animals). Although they still have mouth they do not have teeth rather the extension of skin acting like a food filter. If they could evolve further on Earth they would eventually lose the mouth as well. One can then imagine how a more evolved whale on a bigger terrestrial planet would look like. It would be even bigger than blue whale, if evolved enough it would have no mouth, it would use almost its whole body as a filter and would eat microbes, would be more spherical and it would have very limited (if any) capabilities to move on its own. Large predators wouldn't touch it as it wouldn't look edible at all and it would have smaller animals living in the filters defending it (with poisons, electric currents, etc.). Besides, its most pronounced organ would be the brain and it would be very hard to get to it. Life Life of this creature is likely reflected in the collective of lives of creatures living inside it (Earth right now might be having a nightmare). From external perspective, it may be considered as in a state of hibernation. However, in adult stage, its dreams are at least as consistent and real as external reality is consistent and real for homo.beta. Since everything is physical at some scale at all times, even the reality of homo.beta may be a physical interpretation of large scale dreams. In any case, from the reference point of a soul, external universe mirrors the internal universe, thus the most energy efficient way to explore and live in a universe is to do that in dreams. Chapter Mechanisms of large scale biological fusion and fission updated. Chapter Mechanisms of large scale biological fusion and fission updated. Added chapter Mechanisms of large scale biological fusion and fission. Mechanisms of large scale biological fusion and fission On small scale, fusion of male and female gametes into a new living being requires a certain level of compatibility between merging cells, effectively requiring gametes to be of the same species. However, species classification itself is relative - large differences can and do exist between individuals of same species, largest between male and female individuals. It is not incorrect to say that males and females belong to different species - they are just compatible for formation of viable zygotes (new living beings), of new species - to be extremely precise. Certainly, it seems, small difference in DNA between gametes is a requirement for successful formation of a zygote (note that even in asexual reproduction, inherited DNA is modified through lateral gene transfer), but most important for its maturation and survival is appropriate gene regulation - what genes to activate (express) and when. On the scale of Earth, humans living on the surface are not cells to be fused, rather precursor proteins to be fused. So the question is, how will an human individual fuse with another individual, human or not, to form new species? This is unlikely to be a fusion of living individuals (although, it could, with accelerated time, appear so from a certain perspective). Most likely, new individual is formed as usual (merging of small scale gametes) with increase in size proportional to increase in size of the soul (graviton) in soul fusion. Difference between a neuron protein and its precursor is a difference between [what are generally considered to be] two different species of life, so this implies strong DNA changes, mostly in gene regulation.
Here, homo.beta (a species of homo currently inhabiting Earth's surface) is a precursor to homo.sapiens and homo.gamma.
Generally, it is considered that such changes [only] occur over thousands or millions of years. However, it is (or should be) also well known that, during embryonic development, evolution is compressed [in time]. One can thus expect such compression to occur on large scale too - during planet's neurogenesis events. I have previously hypothesized (in The Solar System: Nature and Mechanics paper) that effective time compression occurs periodically on this scale and strongest compression occurs with each major extinction event - the event of neuron cell maturity and migration (from surface to mantle layers). While I have hypothesized decay rates of elements to temporary change during such events, these are unlikely to provide required DNA changes. Thus, some mechanism must exist which will cause rapid and specific genetic changes with an aim to achieve maturity of precursor proteins, which includes increasing compatibility between different species (individuals) destined to fuse [their gametes].
Here, individuals most likely to fuse are those living in symbiosis (synchronized relationship of mutual benefit) and those which may be behaviourally or mentally correlated (entangled) with no apparent symbiosis.
I find the most viable mechanisms to be those of lateral gene transfer, particularly viral. Pandemics should thus be a common part of strong evolution events during mass extinctions. However, these pandemics are likely to be silent - with no significant or no typical symptoms of a disease and may be primarily affecting elements of reproductive systems. In any case, these are not something one should fight, unless one wants to negatively affect neural development of Earth - it could be fatal.
Note that average human height is increasing, while human jaw is shrinking. Humans are also evolving another artery, at accelerated pace. This is all expected with homo evolving into homo.sapiens (Earth.homo.sapiens should be ≈3.5 m tall, it will need a bigger heart and more arteries). Human height is currently not growing strong, instead human weight is. However, bodies evolve in "pulse and stasis" fluctuations, and extra weight will be, in a pulse, distributed over larger height. Last such pulse occurred 1.4 - 1.6 million years ago (increasing height by 10 cm, while increase in mass followed 1 million years later). Note that this should be classified as a 3rd order pulse of strong evolution. As I have hypothesized such pulses to happen on average every 1.512 million years, another pulse at this time is expected. While such pulse might increase the height by ~10 cm, in case of major extinctions, this pulse is synchronized with a 2nd order (stronger) pulse, which should bring increase in height on the order of meters. Due to exponentially increasing rate of evolution, this could all happen this century, as I do hypothesize elsewhere.
Since all complex life on Earth shares a lot of genes, obviously all current living organisms on Earth are chimeras - a result of lateral gene transfer (exchange) between species, mediated by DNA carrier particles or life forms (viruses). Such mechanism enables evolution to be accelerated (by multiple orders of magnitude) with the rise and exposure to pandemics. One extreme example of this is platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus), which was likely assembled during one such strong evolution event. Fission Even though, due to compression, I find it likely for inter-species fusion (eg. human-canine) to also occur during strong evolution events, these products may be unstable (relatively short-lived), at least in some cases. Such species may subsequently undergo fission to more stable species, relatively equal to original species. The role of viruses in fission would then be to decrease compatibility between certain organs and other bodies in symbiosis and restore original gene regulation. Deception in pandemics Since homo.beta has mastered development of vaccines, one might question how will horizontal gene transfer proceed and invoke change in humans if vaccines are developed and used to fight them? The solution is probably in massive and silent parallelism. Vaccines may be increasing efficacy but they are also increasingly targeting, while the capacity of the immune system is limited. This specialization of the organism for high efficacy against specific virus species leaves it more vulnerable to other species. Therefore, a scenario in which the population is concentrated on extermination of one (perhaps even relatively harmless) species while other species are silently altering the genome/epigenome, should not be surprising. Even if this gets detected early by homo.beta, due to accelerated and strong evolution, it is highly unlikely for this to be stopped or reversed. Furthermore, with high percentage of population subscribed to vaccination, and, with unvaccinated population generally being immune to mutation (generally, homo.neutralum hybrids should not be evolving into homo.gamma), Mutations and deaths are likely to get correlated with vaccination, contributing to the collapse of systems promoting and enforcing the practice. Possible deception in silence While horizontal gene transfer occurs in nature, if one allows high relativity of "natural" events (which should be valid at least during strong evolution, but is implied with planetary neurogenesis), it becomes perfectly valid to ask to what degree will homo.beta be directly involved in stimulation, rather than prevention, of such transfer. Both, governments and industry, have strong interest in control of general population. Animals with lower cognitive abilities are more easily controlled and satisfied than standard homo.beta. Therefore, evolution of homo.beta into homo.gamma may be of great interest to collapsing, population regulating, systems. It is hard to believe that such action will be conscious on individual level though. In example, animal.homo/animal.other hybrids are being increasingly present in media. I find it hard to believe that this preparation for, or announcement of, such future, is consciously propagated by human mediators. However, it is unambiguously propagating, suggesting that indeed humans will be involved in horizontal gene transfer to some degree. Given the fact that homo.beta has mastered transplantation of organs between species and creation of DNA/RNA vaccines (viruses), this too, probably should not be surprising. Chapter Possible deception in silence updated.
UPDATE 2022.02.17:
Humans with edited genomes already exist, but perhaps even more interesting (in this context) is the successfully created virus that causes a significant visible mutation in a living individual - in this case, restoring vision in one type of blindness. The advancement of synthetic biology seems to be on par with accelerated evolution. Transformation of homo.beta into homo.gamma induced by a synthetic virus in near future is not fiction any more, and even if controlled creation of human/animal hybrids does not fail to get public support, a virus escaping or escaping from a laboratory, transforming extant homo.beta into homo.gamma is a very real possibility too. Especially with increase of other expected events of neurogenesis (eg. strong earthquakes, volcanism, flooding) taken into account.
UPDATE 2023.02.15
Recent study has shown that both mRNA vaccines and the SARS-CoV-2 virus indirectly alter DNA (through induced reverse transcription of RNA into DNA) of human [liver] cells. This was unexpected (vaccine manufacturers originally claimed DNA alteration is impossible). The study didn't reveal whether integration of the viral code in cell genome and expression of chimeric transcripts is permanent or not but this is certainly interesting development. Apparently, humans are, both consciously and unconsciously, participating in creation of chimeras.
UPDATE 2023.02.18
I was not aware of this, but it seems about a year ago it was discovered that SARS-CoV-2 contains a large sequence of genetic code that's impossible to explain through natural [rate of] genetic mutation. Not only that, the sequence codes for a protein commonly found in humans (MSH3) albeit in a different (stabilized) form which, together with a very low probability for a virus to acquire the protein in cells in human bodies, strongly suggests the lab origin. The only question is whether the creation of this virus was accidental or deliberate (some argue that it's unlikely to be deliberate). I don't believe it was deliberate in this case but deliberate production of viruses in near future certainly cannot be excluded. Deliberate stimulation of pandemics cannot be excluded even in this case, even if deliberate creation of its carrier can. When its expression is caused by the virus, the MSH3 protein is disrupting the ability of human cells to repair DNA. This is very interesting as it is enabling changes in DNA to be longer-lived. Note that a mutation this large can be interpreted as evidence for strong (accelerated) evolution. If we are currently in a period of strong evolution, as I have hypothesized, the frequency of these large (non-point) and functional mutations in viruses and humans will be increasing and soon we will have homo.gamma species living on Earth.
Added The influence of gravity. The influence of gravity I generally assume that homo has evolved on three terrestrial planets: Venus, Earth and Mars. However, only Venus and Earth have similar mass/gravity, Mars has 2.6 times lower surface gravity and 9.3 times lower mass than Earth. One might then expect significant difference in evolution of species between Mars and Earth. However, I do not believe that is the case. I believe evolutionary path of surface life is similar and there are no significant differences in shape and function of organ[ism]s, only in size and specific adaptations to preserve the function relative to gravity/pressure. This is based on several assumptions: Evidence for all this may already exist on Earth. Compression of time Time flows differently for animals of different size. The rate of evolution on Mars should be different from the rate of evolution on Earth - it should be faster. Applying Kleiber's law, 4.54 billion years of evolution on Earth would, on Mars, last: $\displaystyle T_M = {{\left(M_M\right)}^{3 \over 4} \over {\left(M_E\right)}^{3 \over 4}} T_E = 852\, \text{million years}$ MM = 0.642 * 1024 kg
ME = 5.972 * 1024 kg
TE = 4.54 * 109 years
Assuming Mars was formed roughly at the same time as Earth, present time on Earth corresponds to a time 3.69 billion years ago on Mars (4.54 - 0.85 = 3.69). This is a very interesting result because studies show that Martian climate shifted from habitable to uninhabitable - when its atmosphere was lost and liquid water disappeared from surface, roughly 3.6 billion years ago (src). This suggests that current major extinction on Earth may indeed be the final major extinction of the planetary embryogenesis (neurogenesis), after which the Earth's surface will become permanently uninhabitable (although periodic and possibly spatially limited pulses of habitability cannot be excluded, as hypothesized pulses of adult neurogenesis). The same equation gives evolution period of 3.9 billion years for Venus, suggesting Venus lost habitability some 640 million years ago. Again interesting, as studies show that Venus did lost habitability roughly 700 million years ago.
It is a common assumption that all planets in the Solar System have been formed at the same time (this is also the case with my theory of inflation), and calculations above certainly can be interpreted as a confirmation of that assumption. However, the term is relative and a difference on the order of millions or tens of millions of years is possible.
Small updates. Article revised. Article revised. Chapter Mechanisms of large scale biological fusion and fission updated. Added chapter Physical differences. Small updates in other chapters.