On nuclear fusion.
On nuclear fusion
The path to sustainable fusion is not in Brownian thermonuclear reactions. All reactors exploiting high thermal energy of plasma to initiate and sustain fusion require colossal amounts of energy
to be built and operated. They produce excessive amounts of neutrons which are not only damaging to reactor walls but induce radioactivity in them.
It is questionable if they will ever be able to compete with other sources of energy.
Based on the probable gravitational profile of the Sun in context of Complete Relativity (CR), I find
it questionable whether thermonuclear reactions are the main generator of nuclear fusion reactions even in stars, except when they are highly electro-magnetically polarized (usually at birth/death).
It has already been proven that low energy nuclear fusion is possible although
the self-sustaining fusion has not yet been achieved with these reactions.
Here, I will describe, what I consider, a proper path to fusion - an energy efficient path, as one used by highly evolved life-forms such as stars.
Hallowed be thy grail
While constructing CR, it became obvious to me that efficient nuclear fusion can be achieved with a large difference in momenta between fusing nuclei. This can create a large difference in
nuclear radii, effectively transforming the process of fusion to injection.
In standard thermonuclear reactions all plasma has a roughly equal momentum so a large [brute] force is required to fuse the nuclei.
Large momentum will also effectively decrease electric charge and increase gravity further increasing the probability of fusion. However, significant effect requires relativistic energy
input, unless the effect of charge can be reduced in some other way.
That other way was clear to me after I did the analysis of the Solar System in
context of CR.
In heavier atoms, electrons closer to the core are not in the form of electrons at all. In such atoms the closest electrons can have the mass of muons and even tau particles.
If one replaces the electron in the atom with a massive particle, one significantly increases the probability of fusion.
However, the analysis also revealed something else, extremely useful for fusion - with bound electrons, charge is extracted from the core to balance the electrons.
This decoupling of charge and mass radii, with enough energy, will also collapse the charged maximums to form localized orbiting particles (with a mass of positrons and heavier particles).
If the core is neutral and charge maximums are collapsed, a careful setup can also ensure there is no Coulomb barrier to prevent the fusion of two cores.
Bases on these facts, one can devise a concept for an energy efficient fusion:
Obviously, what is currently being done in most expensive nuclear fusion experiments is exactly the opposite - and that is why they are so expensive, inefficient, and will probably never
be useful as a source of energy.
- fusing nuclei should have a difference in momentum, but not too large as it reduces the probability (cross-section) of interaction,
- ideally, atoms should not be ionized, as ionization recharges the core,
- in fusing atoms, charge carriers (Coulomb barriers) should be localized to the trailing part of the nuclei in order not to obstruct the neutral cores from fusion,
- ideally, spin momentums between fusing nuclei should be anti-aligned.
Note that what makes the Lattice Confinement Fusion [achieved by NASA] possible is the exploitation of the 1st (large difference in momentum) and 3rd principle (charge screening) listed above, but
there's a lot of room for improvement.
Mechanics of fusion in stars
In stars, I believe fusion is initially ignited by thermonuclear reactions induced by electro-magnetic force, rather than gravity, as, at the start of a 1st order cycle gravitational maximums are
in 2-dimensional (charged) form.
A ferro-magnetic or heavier core is created with such fusion, however, the core is afterwards powered by gravitational contraction while thermonuclear fusion is imitated by low
energy fusion reactions in radiative zone.
This is not only limited to stars - all bodies with a distinct gravitational maximum (including all planets, dwarf planets and some moons) form their cores in similar way.
However, due to a difference in energy, low-energy processes will imitate high-energy ones and even low-energy nuclear fusion may be replaced with molecular fusion.
After core formation, but still during the transition from 2-dimensional plane to spherical form, charges are accumulated between the core event horizon (gravitational maximum) and
outer (surface) event horizon, at different orbitals.
Fig. 1: major gravitational and charge maximums of a star
This is shown on Fig. 1.
With increase in density, the plasma must increase temperature. This further increases the probability of pairing of positive (protons) and negative (electrons) charges in between.
Formed hydrogen in between has angular momentum, but it is electrically polarized - with its negative charge fixed toward the outer horizon and positive toward the inner horizon.
Such polarization, with accumulation of hydrogen at the same orbital, enables the neutral hydrogen nuclei to fuse into helium and to even heavier elements relatively easy.
Note that these are extremely strong electric fields, so electrons and induced positrons in hydrogen will be at large distance from the neutral core.
Fixed at a specific orbital, the core is effectively at extremely low temperature and thus in condensed form, having large gravitational energy.
With time, heavy mass will be accumulating in the middle forming a real [mass] gravitational maximum imitating the img gravitational maximum.
Note that Sun's radiative zone is rotating like a solid body. That is because at this point (at the end of the 1st order cycle) it likely is a solid body of fusion products, indicating
that fusion fuel is almost exhausted.
At the end of a 1st order cycle, once the fuel is exhausted, the outer maximum collapses into charged 2-dimensional form also changing radius. This will be now striping charge from accumulated
matter but also cause a rapid rise in its temperature (due to high gravitational stress, affecting decay rates) initiating de-condensation of atomic nuclei into fermionic states and causing
a bosenova (supernova) explosion.